As specified in Article 19 of the Constitution adopted in 2004, the national flag of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan consists of three stripes equal in width juxtaposed vertically from left to right in the colors of black, red and green. The width of each colored piece is equal to half of its length.
The black represents invasion and the dark era of Afghanistan, red marks bloodshed resulting from the fight for independence and the green symbolizes the victory, independence, peace and prosperity that were achieved.
The national insignia, composed of a mosque with a mehrab (stairsteps and pulpit) and monbar (pillars), is white and located in the center of the flag. Two flags flank the mosque. Inscribed in the upper-middle part of the insignia is an excerpt from the Qur’an (Kaleema) which carries the meaning, “There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is his prophet.” Underneath are the rising sun and words “Allah is Great.”
Below the mosque, the Afghan year 1298 (dating back to 1919 when the reformist King Amanullah promulgated modern laws) followed by the word, “Afghanistan” are written. The insignia is encircled with two branches of wheat which must overlap onto each of the flag’s three stripes.
It was in 1298 (solar calendar), or 1919, that Afghanistan gained full independence over her foreign policy from the United Kingdom.
Wheat is a symbol of Afghanistan's existence as an agricultural nation. In 1747, the founder of modern Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Durrani, was declared King by Loya Jirga (Grand Assembly), religious leader Saber Shah crowned him with wheat as a sign of holiness.