1900's - 1940's


  • Amir Habibullah Khan, the eldest son of Amir Abdul Rahman Khan, takes over. He brings numerous reforms and embarks upon modernizing the infrastructure. The foundation for Habibia High School with the English language as part of the curriculum is laid in Kabul.


  • The first issue of Seraj-ul-Akhbar is published on 11 January 1906.


  • In January, Amir Habibullah Khan pays a visit to India.

  • Sardar Ayub Khan, the winner of the Battle of Maiwand (1880) against the British visits Japan and meets with high officials.

  • On 21 August, Great Britain and Russia sign a non-aggression treaty with regards to Afghanistan.


  • The first telephone line in Afghanistan is extended between Kabul and Jalalabad in the east.


  • The weekly Saraj-ul-Akhbar, edited by Mahmood Tarzi, begins its publication.


  • Amir Habibullah declares Afghan neutrality in the First World War.


  • A joint Turko-German delegation arrives in Kabul to receive Afghan support in WWI, but leaves with the Afghan declaration of neutrality.


  • Kabul Museum is established.


  • On 20 February, Amir Habibullah Khan is killed in Laghman.

  • On 3 May, the Third Anglo-Afghan War begins.

  • On 3 June, Great Britain and Afghanistan agree on a cease-fire.

  • On 18 August, a preliminary peace conference between Afghanistan and Great Britain is convened in Rawalpindi (present-day Islamabad).

  • On 19 August, Afghan Foreign Affairs' independence is restored.

  • On 3 September, a Russian delegation arrives in Kabul.


  • In April, the Missouri Conference is convened, with Mahmood Tarzi representing the Afghan Delegation and Henry Dubbs the British Delegation. The conference ends on 18 July.


  • Amir Sayed Alem Khan, the King of Bukhara (located in present-day Uzbekistan) seeks asylum in Afghanistan.

  • On 28 February, the Friendship Treaty between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union is signed.

  • On 2 December, at the end of Kabul Conference, Great Britain recognizes Afghanistan's independence.


  • Amani'a School (later called Esteqlal High School) is established in Kabul, after the signing of a friendship treaty between Afghanistan and France, teaching in the French language.


  • A new Constitution called Nizamnamah is ratified by a Loya Jirga.

  • Amani School (later called Nejat High School) is established in Kabul with German cultural assistance and teaching in the German language.

  • January-The foundation of the first Women's and Children's Hospital is laid in Kabul.

  • May - The people of Khost stage an uprising against Ammanullah Khan's government with the leadership of Mullah Abdullah.


  • Afghan currency is printed to replace 'paye-sa-e-Kabuli' or Kabul currency.


  • Daily 'Anis' starts its publication.

  • In December, King Amanullah Khan begins an official trip, in the following order, to India, Egypt, Italy, France, Great Britain, Germany, Poland, Soviet Russia, Turkey and Iran. It is on this trip that he establishes bilateral relations with many countries.


  • In July, King Amanullah Khan returns back from his long journey.

  • King Amanullah Khan promulgates his decree on citizen's (Western) dress code, both for men and women.

  • In October, the first group of Afghan girls embark to the West for higher education.

  • In November, the inhabitants of Shinwar (east of Jalalabad) begin their rebellion against the State and King Amanullah.

  • In December, the rebellion of the inhabitants of the Shamali Plains headed by Habibullah of Kalakani is staged.


  • On 7 August, the daily "Islah" (reform) newspaper is established against Habibullah Kalakani.

  • On 14 January, Amanullah Khan flees Afghanistan.

  • On 18 January, Habibullah Khan (Kalakani) takes over the throne in Afghanistan.

  • On 14 October, Kabul is taken over by a force commanded by Nadir Shah.

  • On 16 October, Mohammad Nadir Shah claims the throne.

  • In November, Habibullah Kalakani, along with his followers face the death squad.

  • On 15 November, a new cabinet headed by Mohammad Hashem Khan takes over.


  • In July, the foundation of the Historical Association is laid.

  • On 31 October, Nadir Shah passes a new constitution, comprised of 110 articles.


  • The Faculty of Medicine is established.

  • On 24 August, new administrative zones are established, dividing Afghanistan into five "supreme" and four "ordinary" administrative regions.


  • Kabul 's Main Road extending to the North through the Shibar Pass is completed.

  • On 8 November, Nadir Shah is assassinated and replaced by his son, the 18-year old Mohammad Zahir Shah, who claims the throne as the new King of Afghanistan.


  • Mohammad Zahir Shah promulgates his decree on elections for the "National Assembly."

  • In March, Bank-e-Melli (the "National Bank") is established.

  • On 25 September, Afghanistan joins the League of Nations.


  • In March, Afghanistan and the Soviet Union sign a Treaty of "Non-Interference" in the internal affairs of their respective states. Also in March, the first Friendship agreement is signed in London between Afghanistan and the United States of America.


  • German flights between Berlin and Kabul begin once per week.

  • A 10-clause Agreement of restoration of Near Eastern peace and security, non-interference, expansion of relations and mutual cooperation is signed in Tehran between Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and Turkey.


  • The Afghan Air Force receives fighter planes from Italy and Great Britain.

  • Afghan officers are sent to Great Britain, Italy and the Soviet Union for training and operations.


  • In a decree, King Mohammad Zahir Shah declares Afghan neutrality in WWII.


  • Kabul Radio begins its 20 KW transmission on Medium Waves.


  • On 28 July, Afghanistan's neutrality in the Second World War is declared.


  • Afghanistan's Consulate-General is established in New York, nine years after its Embassy in Washington, D.C.


  • Kabul University is founded, having two Faculties, namely Medicine and Law.

  • On 9 November, Afghanistan becomes a member of the United Nations.


  • An Afghan Delegation arrives in Tashkent to determine the border between Afghanistan and the Soviet Union.